NMO-IgG, also known as AQP4 antibody (aquaporin-4 antibody), is a highly sensitive and specific serological diagnostic of Neuromyelitis Optica. Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) is a severe inflammatory illness of the central nervous system (CNS) with an autoimmune origin that mostly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord. The presence of a serum autoantibody specific for the aquaporin-4 protein unites Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) and a similar range of inflammatory CNS diseases (AQP4 antibody)
Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is a water channel protein found on astrocytes, which surround the blood-brain barrier (a layer of cells responsible for preventing dangerous substances in the blood from crossing into the brain). Antibodies against AQP4 are hypothesized to be able to cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the central nervous system.
Clinical Significance of Aquaporin 4
Despite the fact that higher AQP4 antibody levels are linked to the development of optic neuritis (ON), the serum AQP4-IgG titer only predicts disease activity, severity, or neurological prognosis in only two-thirds of neuromyelitis optica patients. NMO-IgG binds to the extracellular surface of AQP4 and is also known as specific AQP4 IgG autoantibody. Another clinically relevant impact of AQP4 is its participation in the regulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles. AQP4 can be utilized to remove excess CSF from the ventricles of the brain in conditions like hydrocephaly. Mechanical shunts are commonly implanted into the ventricles of persons with hydrocephaly to drain the excess fluid.
What is LAT?
LAT is a protein that is encoded by the LAT gene in humans. Protein tyrosine kinases phosphorylate the protein produced by this gene after the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) signal transduction pathway is activated. This transmembrane protein is found in lipid rafts and serves as a docking site for proteins with SH2 domains. This protein recruits numerous adaptor proteins and downstream signaling molecules into multimolecular signaling complexes around the TCR interaction site after being phosphorylated.
About LAT Antibody
LAT antibody is produced recombinant polypeptide corresponding to the entire cytoplasmic domain of human LAT. It is validated on WB, IHC, ICC, Immunofluorescence, and ELISA with known positive and negative samples to ensure specificity and high affinity.
What is Nestin
Nestin is a protein that is encoded by the NES gene in humans. Nestin is a type VI intermediate filament (IF) protein (an acronym for neuroepithelial stem cell protein). These intermediate filament proteins are typically found in nerve cells and are thought to play a role in axon radial expansion. Nestin’s distribution and expression in mitotically active cells imply it regulates the formation and disassembly of intermediate filaments, which, together with other structural proteins, play a role in cell remodeling. Nestin’s role in dynamic cells, specifically cell structural organization, appears to be governed by phosphorylation, notably its integration into heterogeneous intermediate filaments with vimentin or alpha-internexin.
About Nestin Antibody
There are over 600 nestin antibodies that can be sourced from 35+ suppliers and manufacturers. Variants of this antigen may also be found in other species, including fly, canine, porcine, monkey, mouse, and rat. The Nestin antigen is a documented cancer and neural stem cell marker.
Expression of Nestin
When working with nestin, Positive and negative controls are very important for validating Nestin antibody. This is applicable for western blot, IHC, IF, and even ELISA. The neural progenitor cells of the subgranular zone express nestin in adult organisms and are possibly the best known for it. Nestin is an intermediate filament protein that is expressed in dividing cells between the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, myogenic, and other tissues during the early stages of development. Nestin is downregulated during differentiation and replaced by tissue-specific intermediate filament proteins.
Clinical significance of Nestin
Follicle stem cells and their immediate, differentiated progeny express nestin, a protein marker for neural stem cells. The bulge of the hair follicle is a rich source of actively proliferating pluripotent adult stem cells that is easily accessible. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is used to identify hair follicle stem cells in transgenic mice, and its expression is controlled by the nestin regulatory element. In vitro, these cells can become neurons, glia, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, and melanocytes. Hair follicle stem cells are thus an efficient, readily available, and autologous source of stem cells for the therapy of peripheral nerve damage.
Nestin is gaining popularity as a marker for recognizing freshly produced endothelium cells. Nestin is a proliferating endothelial cell angiogenesis marker found in colorectal cancer tissue.